د. أحمد صبحى منصور: لحظات قرآنية 901 : حديث من رأى منكم منكرا ج 2


Peace be with all of you
Welcome to Episode No. 901 of our show “Quranic Moments” titled (Advising virtue and advising
against vice, PART XXI) We thank again our director and editor, our
son Mr. Mohamed Mansour, and the translator Mr. Ahmed Fathy for their voluntary work within
our YouTube videos We continue talking about the historical roots
of the silly Sunnite hadith about changing ‘vice’ by one’s hand; i.e., by force
We focus now on the turning point during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Al-Maamoun who
cared very much for philosophy and other branches of knowledge
Of course, no one can deny the role of the Abbasid Era in preserving and adding to the
human civilization and knowledge during the Middle-Ages in many fields: medicine, philosophy,
chemistry…etc. The world owes a lot to scientists like Al-Kindi,
Ibn Al-Haytham, Al-Razi, Ibn Hayyan, Avicenna, Al-Farabi, & Al-Biruni
The scientific movement began by the caliph Al-Maamoun (who died in 218 A.H.); he opened
schools for translating books into Arabic; he was the patron of arts, science, and philosophy;
he took delight in talking to erudite scholars in all fields and to Al-Mu’tazala philosophers
This caliph spent a lot of money to encourage and help scientists and philosophers and so
did his successors Al-Motassim & Al-Wathiq Al-Maamoun established the Wisdom House; he
brought to it Al-Khwarizmi (who died in 232 A.H.) the renowned mathematician whose ideas
are still being taught in Europe Al-Maamoun financed the making of the largest
map of the earth; it was made within the participation of 70 specialists in geography
Moussa Ibn Shaker the astronomer lived in Baghdad at the time and was very near to Al-Maamoun;
this caliph cared for the 3 children of this scientist after his death
The House of Wisdom in Baghdad had the hugest library on earth at the time within all scientific
branches & philosophy; thousands of books were translated from Greek into Arabic
Jaffer Ibn Mohamed was the renowned erudite scholar of mechanical engineering at the time;
other scientists specialized in geography, astronomy, & mathematics
The polyglot and translator Ibn Ishaq Al-Anbary (who died in 260 A.H.) who mastered Arabic,
Syriac, Persian, & Greek was appointed in the House of Wisdom by Al-Maamoun to supervise
translations done into Arabic; he translated works of Galenus, Hippocrates, and Aristotle
(from Greek into Arabic) in return for gold bestowed by Al-Maamoun
This polyglot moved about a lot in Persian regions; he served 9 caliphs; he translated
100+ books; he tutored translators; he authored a reference in ophthalmology used by physicians
for centuries Al-Wathiq (who died in 237 A.H.) followed
the footsteps of Al-Maamoun within the passion for science and philosophy; we’ll talk about
this caliph in a coming episode; he put to death the Sunnite fiqh scholar and rebel Al-Khozaay
in 231 A.H.; this rebel is behind the fabrication of the hadith about changing ‘vice’ by sheer
force Ibn Al-Jawzy the Hanbali historian in his
book titled (Al-Muntazim) distorts the biography of Al-Wathiq who persecuted extremist Hanbali
Sunnite scholars The historian Al-Masoody (who died in 246
A.H.) offers in his history book titled (Moroj Al-Zahab)a relatively neutral portrayal of
the enlightened caliph Al-Wathiq who followed the footsteps of Al-Maamoun and Al-Motassim
in adhering to the philosophy of Al-Mu’tazala; a group of rational philosophers who used
their minds to understand everything esp. religion
They were enemies of hadiths-fabricators who were ignoramuses who ascribed their nonsensical
views and Isnad (i.e., series of narrators) to Muhammad 2 centuries after his death
Thus the philosophers of Al-Mu’tazala and other scientists flourished in the Abbasid
palace within the reign of several caliphs Al-Masoody mentions that meetings attended
by physicians and scientists were held by Al-Wathiq to discuss medicine and other branches
of science This caliph bestowed money-gifts on erudite
scientists and Al-Mu’tazala philosophers He read often in books of hadiths and fiqh
and questioned their content…etc.; he believed in empiricism in science; he predated European
empiricism which helped the whole world to achieve progress, invent, and discover many
regions on earth After the death of Al-Wathiq, the philosophers
of Al-Mu’tazala were persecuted and scientists were chased away; ignoramuses who specialized
in Sunnite Hanbali fiqh and hadiths dominated the Abbasid palace court
Al-Motassim, brother and successor of Al-Maamoun, was the 8th caliph and not very cultured;
yet, he supported the philosophers of Al-Mu’tazala and became the patron of science and arts…etc.;
he hated Sunnite scholars; he continued the persecution of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal started by
Al-Maamoun who desired to force his view on fiqh scholars; i.e., the view that the Quran
was ‘created’ by God and it never existed before
Al-Motassim was very tolerant towards Jews and Christians; he trusted his Christian physician
Salmaweih who carried about around his neck a pendant in the form of a cross
This physician enjoyed much influence at the time; no one dared to disobey any written
commands which carried his seal and signature Al-Motassim appointed the brother of Salmaweih
as the Treasurer of the Abbasid caliphate; he often said he preferred his physician to
all courtiers and even to the supreme judge of Baghdad since Salmaweih treated his body
and soul, which are more valuable than all assets and money
Al-Motassim visited the bed-ridden Salmaweih when he was taken ill; he wept at the death-bed
of his physician and asked for his advice on many things
When Salmaweih died; this caliph fasted for a whole day out of sorrow and in deep mourning;
he attended, arranged, supervised, and paid lavishly for his funeral; he made his courtiers
attend it while wearing garments of Christians at the time; 20 months later, Al-Motassim
died in sorrow in 227 A.H. This is an excellent story of religious tolerance
and the love/respect of science and scientists In contrast, the caliph Al-Motawakil (the
successor and 2nd son of Al-Motassim) persecuted and banished scientists and philosophers and
spent much money on Hanbali Sunnite authors/ignoramuses We welcome all viewers to our YouTube channel
& our website; please download our PFD books and share and like our videos
Peace be with all of you

One comment

  1. لقد سبقك عكاشة هههههه اما انت طز فيك ههههههه متروح للجنة فقط عكاشة هو اللي يروح بارك الله بيك دكتور

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *